Leadership and its applications in hospitality industry (2019)
You will find the videos, articles book chapters on this microsite
Class on 14th Feb 2019
Class 1 (14 Feb 2019)
Alan Watts Video – PURPOSE
Leadership Lessons from a shitless guy
Photos of the white board
Quiz question might be something like the following : )
Please summarize last weeks class by making sure you use all following KEY WORDS
Please make sure use text book quality english as if you are writing the abstract of an article (imagine you are writing the syllabus for this class and the text you are writing might be use to DESCRİBE THE PURPOSE OF THE CLASS
Influence, Purpose, First follower, passion, dream, charisma, cultural intelligence, optimal life experience window, Critical Thinking, Decision Making
All the best
Class on 21st Feb 2019
Class 2 (21 Feb 2019)
We have started with our quiz
We then discussed the life quality scale from survival to success then significance
We discussed the impact we can create may not br achieved through mastering only one leadership skill but many of them. We used MALCOM GLADWELLS idea from his book outliers
You can find the whiteboard photos and class notes on below photo gallery
Next weeks quiz question might be something like
Please explain what is learned helplessness and conformity (with personal examples)
Class on 28th Feb 2019
We had a short recap of last weeks topics on the Leadership Impact equation. (remember the GLADWELL’s idea on how big results are never happens because of one big reason but many small reasons getting together)
We have done a group work on Leadership and Management differences
We have discussed the Transactional Analyses THEORY of Eric Berne
Complementary Transactions: A transaction is said to be complementary when the person sending the message gets the predicted response from the other person. Thus, the stimulus and response patterns from one ego state to another are parallel. These are:
- Adult-Adult Transaction: The manager acts with the adult ego state, who tries to clarify and inform employees about the issues and has a concern for the human needs and facts and figures. I am O.K. you are O.K is his life position. This is an ideal transaction.
- Adult-Parent Transaction: Here, the manager tries to implement the information being processed by him, but rather the employees with the parent ego stick to the clichés and the rules of the past. The employee tries to control the manager with his parent ego but is temporary.
- Adult-Child Transaction: Here the employee possesses the child ego state, and this can be effective only if the manager knows about it and let his employees to be in this state to be creative.
- Parent-Parent Transaction: Here the manager is in the parent ego, and his life position is I am O.K. you are not O.K. Reprimand, reward, criticism, rules, praise, etc. will be the sources used by him. This transaction is effective only if the employee supports him and join forces with him.
- Parent-Adult Transaction: Here, both manager and employee might be frustrated. The manager may feel devastated if the employee does not perform as directed while, the employee may feel irritated because the manager is not acting with the adult ego.
- Parent-Child Transaction: This is the ideal situation if the manager acts with adult ego while the employee is in child ego. The employee may find this transaction advantageous as it eliminates the responsibility and pressure on them.
- Child-Parent Transaction: The manager in the child ego might not contribute efficiently towards the effectiveness of management. Although the child ego is characterized by creativity, it does not suffice the role of a manager. Here, the employee controls the manager.
- Child-Adult Transaction: There is a lack of rationality when a manager acts with a child ego. Here, the employee in the adult ego gets discouraged as he wants to make logical and realistic decisions, but the manager may land up to the unrealistic decisions made on the basis of whims, fancies and emotions.
- Child-Child Transaction: The manager acting with child-child ego is inefficient to lead his employees successfully and hence turn out to be the liability to the firm.
Non-Complementary Transactions: A transaction is said to be non-complimentary or crossed when the person sending the message does not get the predicted response, or the stimulus and response lines are not parallel.
In the above transaction, The manager is trying to interact on an adult-to-adult basis, but the employee responds on the child-to-parent basis, this would block the communication, and no further transaction could be done.
Ulterior Transaction: This is the most complex transaction because the communication has the double meaning. Such as, on the surface level the communication may have a clear adult message, but it may carry some hidden message on the psychological level and gets misinterpreted.
We have discussed PHEDAGOGY & ANDRAGOGY
Andragogy refers to methods and principles used in adult education.
The word comes from the Greek ἀνδρ- andr-, meaning “man”, and ἀγωγός agogos, meaning “leader of”; it literally means “leading man”, whereas “pedagogy” literally means “leading children”.
Two primary understandings of “andragogy” exist:
- The science of understanding (theory) and supporting (practice) lifelong education of adults.
- In the tradition of Malcolm Knowles, a specific theoretical and practical approach. It is based on a humanistic conception of self-directed and autonomous learners as well as teachers as facilitators of learning.
Interpreted broadly throughout academic literature, the term also invites other definitions such as “adult education practice”, “desirable values”, “specific teaching methods”, “reflections”, and “academic discipline”, with many authors claiming it to be better than traditional adult education.
The term has been used by some to allow discussion of contrast between self-directed and self-taught education.
The term was originally coined by German educator Alexander Kapp in 1833. Andragogy was developed into a theory of adult education by Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy. It later became very popular in the US by the American educator Malcolm Knowles. Knowles asserted that andragogy (Greek: “man-leading”) should be distinguished from the more commonly used term pedagogy (Greek: “child-leading”).
Knowles collected ideas about a theory of adult education from the end of World War II until he was introduced to the term “andragogy”. In 1966, Knowles met Dusan Savicevic in Boston. Savicevic was the one who shared the term andragogy with Knowles and explained how it was used in the European context. In 1967, Knowles made use of the term “androgogy” to explain his theory of adult education. Then after consulting with Merriam-Webster, he corrected the spelling of the term to “andragogy” and continued to make use of the term to explain his multiple ideas about adult learning.
Knowles’ theory can be stated with six assumptions related to the motivation of adult learning:[
- Need to know: Adults need to know the reason for learning something.
- Foundation: Experience (including error) provides the basis for learning activities.
- Self-concept: Adults need to be responsible for their decisions on education; involvement in the planning and evaluation of their instruction.
- Readiness: Adults are most interested in learning subjects having immediate relevance to their work and/or personal lives.
- Orientation: Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented.
- Motivation: Adults respond better to internal versus external motivators.
Adult learning is based upon comprehension, organization and synthesis of knowledge rather than rote memory. There are seven Principles of Adult Learning:[
- Adults must want to learn – They learn effectively only when they are free to direct their own learning and have a strong inner and excited motivation to develop a new skill or acquire a particular type of knowledge, this sustains learning.
- Adults will learn only what they feel they need to learn – Adults are practical in their approach to learning; they want to know, “How is this going to help me right now? – Is it relevant (Content, Connection and Application) and does it meet my targeted goals.”
- Adults learn by doing – Adolescents learn by doing, but adults do through an active practice and participation, this helps in integrating component skills into a coherent whole.
- Adult learning focuses on problem solving – Adolescents tend to learn skills sequentially. Adults tend to start with a problem and then work to find a solution. A meaningful engagement, such as posing and answering realistic questions and problems is necessary for deeper learning. This leads to more elaborate, longer lasting, and stronger representations of the knowledge (Craik & Lockhart, 1972).
- Experience affects adult learning – Adults have more experience than adolescents. This can be an asset and a liability, if prior knowledge is inaccurate, incomplete, or naive, it can interfere with or distort the integration of incoming information (Clement, 1982; National Research Council, 2000).
- Adults learn best in an informal situation – Adolescents have to follow a curriculum. Often, adults learn by taking responsibility by the value and need of content they have to understand and the particular goals it will achieve. Being in an inviting, collaborative and networking environment as an active participant in the learning process makes it efficient.
- Adults want guidance and consideration as equal partners in the process – Adults want information that will help them improve their situation. They do not want to be told what to do and they evaluate what helps and what doesn’t. They want to choose options based on their individual needs and the meaningful impact a learning engagement could provide. Socialization is more important among adults.[
Self Serving Bias
A self-serving bias is any cognitive or perceptual process that is distorted by the need to maintain and enhance self-esteem, or the tendency to perceive oneself in an overly favorable manner.[
It is the belief that individuals tend to ascribe success to their own abilities and efforts, but ascribe failure to external factors. When individuals reject the validity of negative feedback, focus on their strengths and achievements but overlook their faults and failures, or take more responsibility for their group’s work than they give to other members, they are protecting their ego from threat and injury. These cognitive and perceptual tendencies perpetuate illusions and error, but they also serve the self’s need for esteem.
For example, a student who attributes earning a good grade on an exam to their own intelligence and preparation but attributes earning a poor grade to the teacher’s poor teaching ability or unfair test questions might be exhibiting the self-serving bias. Studies have shown that similar attributions are made in various situations, such as the workplace, interpersonal relationships, sports, and consumer decisions.
Next weeks quiz question might be something like
Please explain what is Self Serving Bias and what is ANDRAGOGY and how andragogy & pheadagogy may be related to people management challanges
Class on 7th March 2019
Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to identify and manage one’s own emotions, as well as the emotions of others.
Though there is some disagreement among psychologists as to what constitutes true emotional intelligence,
it is generally said to include at least three skills:
- emotional awareness, or the ability to identify and name one’s own emotions;
- the ability to harness those emotions and apply them to tasks like thinking and problem solving;
- and the ability to manage emotions, which includes both regulating one’s own emotions when necessary and cheering up or calming down other people.
Leadership is influence we agreed
Influence is communication
Communication is words, body language, tone of voice
Our tone, our body language and the words we choose are shaped by EMOTIONS
Have A good Week
Next week quiz will be mainly on Emotional intelligence components and self serving bias
Please make sure you remember the connections from our dreams and goals to Emotions (as mentioned above)
Class on 21st March 2019
Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication, developed by Geert Hofstede. It describes the effects of a society’s culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis.[
Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory. Comparison of 4 countries: US, China, Germany and Brazil in all 6 dimensions of the model.
Hofstede developed his original model as a result of using factor analysis to examine the results of a worldwide survey of employee values by IBM between 1967 and 1973. It has been refined since. The original theory proposed four dimensions along which cultural values could be analyzed: individualism-collectivism; uncertainty avoidance; power distance (strength of social hierarchy) and masculinity-femininity (task-orientation versus person-orientation). Independent research in Hong Kong led Hofstede to add a fifth dimension, long-term orientation, to cover aspects of values not discussed in the original paradigm. In 2010, Hofstede added a sixth dimension, indulgence versus self-restraint.
Please read the article linked below
Please watch the videos below
SATISFICING PRROBLEM SOLVING
Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American economist, political scientist and cognitive psychologist, whose primary research interest was decision-making within organizations and is best known for the theories of “bounded rationality” and “satisficing”. He received the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1978 and the Turing Award in 1975. His research was noted for its interdisciplinary nature and spanned across the fields of cognitive science, computer science, public administration, management, and political science. He was at Carnegie Mellon University for most of his career, from 1949 to 2001.
Satisficing is a decision-making strategy or cognitive heuristic that entails searching through the available alternatives until an acceptability threshold is met.
The term satisficing, a portmanteau of satisfy and suffice, was introduced by Herbert A. Simon in 1956,[although the concept was first posited in his 1947 book Administrative Behavior.
Simon used satisficing to explain the behavior of decision makers under circumstances in which an optimal solution cannot be determined. He maintained that many natural problems are characterized by computational intractability or a lack of information, both of which preclude the use of mathematical optimization procedures. He observed in his Nobel Prize in Economics speech that “decision makers can satisfice either by finding optimum solutions for a simplified world, or by finding satisfactory solutions for a more realistic world. Neither approach, in general, dominates the other, and both have continued to co-exist in the world of management science”.[
Simon formulated the concept within a novel approach to rationality, which posits that rational choice theory is an unrealistic description of human decision processes and calls for psychological realism. He referred to this approach as bounded rationality. Some consequentialist theories in moral philosophy use the concept of satisficing in the same sense, though most call for optimization instead.
Please be prepared for Cultural dimentions of Geert Hofstede
Class on 28th March 2019
After a quick review of our Leadership Effectiveness equation we focussed on Situational leadership theory (Blanchard & Hersey)
Situational Leadership Theory
Situational Leadership Theory, or the Situational Leadership Model, is a model created by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard, developed while working on Management of Organizational Behavior.The theory was first introduced in 1969 as “life cycle theory of leadership”.[ During the mid-1970s, life cycle theory of leadership was renamed “Situational Leadership Theory.”
The fundamental principle of the situational leadership model is that there is no single “best” style of leadership.
Effective leadership is task-relevant, and the most successful leaders are those who adapt their leadership style to the performance readiness (ability and willingness) of the individual or group they are attempting to lead or influence.
Effective leadership varies, not only with the person or group that is being influenced, but it also depends on the task, job, or function that needs to be accomplished.[
The Situational Leadership Model has two fundamental concepts: leadership style and the individual or group’s performance readiness level, also referred to as maturity level or development level.
Hersey and Blanchard characterized leadership style in terms of the amount of task behavior and relationship behavior that the leader provides to their followers. They categorized all leadership styles into four behavior styles, which they named S1 to S4. The titles for three of these styles differ depending on which version of the model is used.
|Selling / Directing||Telling / Coaching||Participating / Supporting||Delegating|
|Individuals lack the specific skills required for the job in hand and they are willing to work at the task. They are novice but enthusiastic.||Individuals are more able to do the task; however, they are demotivated for this job or task. Unwilling to do the task.||Individuals are experienced and able to do the task but lack the confidence or the willingness to take on responsibility.||Individuals are experienced at the task, and comfortable with their own ability to do it well. They are able and willing to not only do the task, but to take responsibility for the task.|
Of these, no one style is considered optimal for all leaders to use all the time. Effective leaders need to be flexible, and must adapt themselves according to the situation.
Class on 4th April 2019
Science Of Persuasion
Class on 11th & 18 th April 2019
Level 5 Leadership
Summary of the BOOK & Article
Cim Collins (Author) Videos on concepts of the article
Next weeks quiz will based on the article.. please make sure you read (at least) the first (summary) page
What are 5 concepts to build good to great companies of level five leadership approach
Class on 25th April & 2nd May April 2019
1 ) WHY Leadership ?
2) How Leadership works (building blocks)
3) What are leadership theories ?
So far we have answered firs 2 question in out class. Todat we will be focussing on the 3rd one
But first, lets remember the “FIRST LEADERS” THEORY
What has changed in social context from 1800′ to today?
1800’s : self employed, less organized, less institutionalized, focus on basic needs, Less liberty, less freedom, Less informed, families live close knit, more social living, more religion in every aspect of life
Today : Work for corporations, more institutionalised society, more freedon, more luxury goods, more social status levels (titles), more individualistic society, less religious living
How these changes might effect peoples thinking and ideals
How we can influence people from 1800’s and people from today
All above questions lead us to the conclusion that LEADERSHİP (influence) has changed in time.
AS A RESULT we can talk about EVOLUTION OF LEADERSHI THEORY
“Great Man” Theories
Have you ever heard someone described as “born to lead?” According to this point of view, great leaders are simply born with the necessary internal characteristics such as charisma, confidence, intelligence, and social skills that make them natural-born leaders.
Great man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is inherent – that great leaders are born, not made. These theories often portray great leaders as heroic, mythic and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term “Great Man” was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military leadership. Such theories suggest that people cannot really learn how to become strong leaders. It’s either something you are born with or born without. It is very much a nature (as opposed to nurture) approach to explaining leadership.
Similar in some ways to Great Man theories, trait theories assume that people inherit certain qualities and traits that make them better suited to leadership. Trait theories often identify a particular personality or behavioral characteristics shared by leaders. For example, traits like extroversion, self-confidence, and courage are all traits that could potentially be linked to great leaders.
If particular traits are key features of leadership, then how do we explain people who possess those qualities but are not leaders? This question is one of the difficulties in using trait theories to explain leadership. There are plenty of people who possess the personality traits associated with leadership, yet many of these people never seek out positions of leadership. There are also people who lack some of the key traits often associated with effective leadership yet still excel at leading groups.
Behavioral theories of leadership are based upon the belief that great leaders are made, not born. Consider it the flip-side of the Great Man theories. Rooted in behaviorism, this leadership theory focuses on the actions of leaders, not on mental qualities or internal states. According to this theory, people can learn to become leaders through teaching and observation.
further reading https://www.verywellmind.com/leadership-theories-2795323
Transformational leadership is a theory ofleadership where a leader works with teams to identify needed change, creating a vision to guide the change through inspiration, and executing the change in tandem with committed members of a group; it is an integral part of the Full RangeLeadership Model.
Transactional leadership is a style of leadership in whichleaders promote compliance by followers through both rewards and punishments. Through a rewards and punishments system, transactional leaders are able to keep followers motivated for the short-term.
Other Theories (in a nut shell)
Please remember next weeks quiz will be based on mainly below 3 areas
- Birth and the Evolution of leadership concept ( why & when did the leadership concept was born?)
- What was the reason for sources of leadership (influence) has changed ?
- What is the timeline of theories ? (Before 1910, after 1910 to WWII, from 1950’s to 1970’s, from 1970′ onwards ?